Periods – Cool2Talk
Puberty and bodies


What is a period?

A period is the part of the menstrual cycle when a person with a vagina bleeds from here for a few days.

For most people this happens every 28 days or so, but it’s common for periods to be more or less frequent than this. They can range from around 21 to 40 days between bleeding. It’s likely that periods might be irregular when they first start with longer times between them.

Your period can last between 3 and 8 days, but it will usually last for about 5 days. The bleeding tends to be heaviest in the first 2 days.

When your period is at its heaviest, the blood will be red. On lighter days, it may be pink, brown or black.

Sometimes you might see clots, these are a thick, lumpy substance made up of blood and tissue. They’re totally normal, but if they are very big and happening often it would be a good idea to speak to a doctor.

You’ll lose about 30 to 72ml (5 to 12 teaspoons) of blood during your period, although some people bleed more heavily than this.

Periods can feel different for everyone, and they can also change over your own lifetime. There’s a great illustration covering all of this HERE.

When do periods start?

Periods usually begin at around the age of 12, although some people will start them earlier or later.

A delay in starting periods isn’t usually a cause for concern. Most people with a vagina will be having regular periods by age 16 to 18. CLICK HERE to read more about delayed periods and when you should seek advice.

Managing your period

It can be useful to get a small make up bag and have the things you need there to manage your period – your period product of choice, some wipes, spare knickers etc. It can help if you are caught out with a heavy flow, or if your period takes you by surprise.

Period Products

Sanitary pads

Sanitary pads are strips of padding that have a sticky side you attach to your underwear to hold them in place. One side of the pad is made of an absorbent material that soaks up the blood.

Pads come in many sizes, so you can choose one to suit how heavy or light your period is.

Pantyliners are a smaller and thinner type of sanitary pad that can be used on days when your period is very light.

You can get these in skin and environment friendly material like bamboo.

You can also get reusable sanitary pads and panty liners. These are made with a few layers of material to make sure they’re just as absorbent as disposable ones. They can be washed and used again and again, making them better for the environment and cheaper long-term.

Pads and liners should be changed at least  every 3 to 4 hours. Some people might need to change them more depending on their flow.


Tampons are small tubes of cotton wool that you insert into your vagina to soak up the blood before it comes out of your body.

There are 2 types of tampon – ones that come with an applicator and others without an applicator that you insert with your fingers. In both cases, there’s a string at one end of the tampon, which you pull to remove it. CLICK HERE to read more about inserting a tampon. If the tampon is inserted correctly, you should not be able to feel it inside you. If you can feel it or it hurts, it might not be in properly.

It is not possible for a tampon to get stuck or lost inside you. Your vagina holds it firmly in place and it expands inside you as it soaks up the blood. It’s important to change them regularly.

Can a tampon get lost inside me CLICK HERE to read more.

What if I forget to remove my Tampon? CLICK HERE to read more.

Menstrual cups

Menstrual cups are an alternative to sanitary pads and tampons. The cup is made from silicone and you put it inside your vagina.

Menstrual cups collect the blood rather than absorb it. Unlike sanitary pads and tampons, which are thrown away after they’ve been used, you can wash menstrual cups and use them again.

Period Pants

These are pants that use layers of material to hold your period blood. There are lots of options available and they can be washed and re-used.

Period Poverty

No-one who needs sanitary products should have to go without.  Period products are available free to young people in places like schools, colleges and youth centres. If they’re not in the toilets just ask!

For the first time, people across Scotland will be able to pick up free period products from a range of public locations via a new app thanks to a project spearheaded by period product social enterprise Hey Girls.

The app – called Pick Up My Period – was devised by Celia Hodson, Founder & CEO of Hey Girls in collaboration with Scottish Government. The free app allows people to find period products on the move or products closest to home. Users can even search for plastic-free products within the app.

Period Shaming

Evidence shows that more than one in three people in the UK have experienced period shaming (where they have been made to feel uncomfortable about having their period) through bullying, isolation or ‘time of the month’ jokes and nearly half said they felt embarrassed the first time they got their period, 35% said they felt scared and 24% felt confused. Remember it is a natural bodily function experienced by more than 50% of the population, not something to be embarrassed about. Check out this “Periods Are Normal” illustration

Period Tracking Apps

Period tracking apps can be useful to keep track of your period. These apps allow people who have periods to track their menstrual cycles and receive a prediction for their period dates. The majority of apps also provide predictions of ovulation day and the fertile window. Research indicates apps are basing predictions on assuming women undergo a textbook 28-day cycle with ovulation occurring on day 14 and a fertile window between days 10 and 16.

The information that these apps offer are based on an average and may not apply to you – they should not be used as a method to avoid pregnancy. Natural fertility awareness is very specialised and can be a positive choice but is not reliable unless properly taught and managed.

Have a look HERE for more information on Natural Family Planning Methods.

PMS (premenstrual syndrome)

Changes in your body’s hormone levels before your period can cause physical and emotional changes.

This is known as PMS (premenstrual syndrome) or PMT (premenstrual tension). CLICK HERE to read more about this.

Your periods can change – for example, they may last longer or get lighter. This does not necessarily mean there’s a problem, but it may need to be investigated

You can see your GP, or visit your nearest sexual health clinic if you’re experiencing any of the following:

  • Bleeding or regular spotting between periods
  • Bleeding after having sex
  • Bleeding after the menopause
  • No periods for 3 months
  • Periods suddenly becoming irregular
  • You bleed for more than 7 days
  • You have to change your tampon every 1 to 2 hours
  • Severe pain

These things might be signs of an infection, abnormalities in the neck of the womb (the cervix) or, in rare cases, it could be cancer. Doctors and sexual health clinics are totally used to discussing all parts of people’s bodies and won’t be phased in the slightest if you need to talk about your periods.

There are Period Tracker apps that you can download to keep track of YOUR cycle and get to know what’s normal for YOU. This can be helpful day to day but also if  you’re asked to monitor your periods for any medical reason.

Stopped or missed your period?

It’s really common to miss a period and most people will experience this at some point in their lives. It could be a sign of pregnancy, particularly if you’ve had unprotected sex. But periods can stop for other reasons too,  CLICK HERE to read more.


Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the womb starts to grow in other places, such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes. Many people don’t realise they have this until they start trying for a family or have experienced problems in this area for a long time with diagnosis in Scotland taking an average of 8.5 years.

Endometriosis affects 1 in 10 of those born female of any age and the earlier that it is diagnosed the better the outcome. Most people have some pain and discomfort leading up to, during and after their period. This is normal. The pain should not be so intense that you cannot get up and carry on with your normal life. If it is you should speak to a family member, school nurse or doctor.

You may get told your periods will settle down, but for some people they won’t. Keep speaking about it and keep a pain and symptoms diary, including how this is impacting on your life, to show to a nurse or doctor.

Common symptoms to look out for include:

  • Painful, heavy or irregular periods
  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain when urinating
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Fatigue
  • Pain during or after sex
  • Difficulty getting pregnant

Endometriosis is a long-term condition that can have a significant impact on your life, but  there are treatments that can help you manage it.  Local support is available for you and your support network via Endometriosis UK’s website or you can contact the local Dundee group HERE or HERE.

CLICK HERE to read more about this condition and if you have any worries speak to your doctor to discuss.

You can find loads more information on periods HERE 

For more detailed information you can also read more HERE. 
POI – Premature Ovarian Insufficiency
POI is typically used to mean menopause (last period) that comes well before the average age of normal menopause — when you’re still in your teens, 20s, 30s, or early 40s. Early menopause is used to describe menopause before the age of 45 and POI when it occurs below the age of 40.

Simply put, it means that the ovaries aren’t working properly. They stop producing eggs years, and in some cases even decades, before they should. In addition, the ovaries are unable to produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which have important roles in women’s health and well-being.

Approximately one in every 100 women under the age of 40, one in 1,000 women under 30 and one in 10,000 under 20 experience POI. This is a medically diagnosed condition. If you’ve had a diagnosis of POI  you may be worried or uncertain about what this means. As well as asking your doctor you can find out more about this condition HERE